[50][51], Burgess had intended to aid Maclean in his escape, not accompany him in it. In 1949 Philby was appointed first secretary to the British Embassy in Washington and served as chief British liaison with American intelligence agencies. Rufina Pukhova, his Russian-Polish wife, said Philby struggled to control his drinking by downing only two glasses of cognac a night and then handing her the bottle to hide. In 1940 he began working for the United Kingdom's Secret Intelligence Service (SIS or MI6). "If he did not act at once it would be too late," the telegram read, "because [Philby] would send his car to the scrap heap. However, when Elliott asked him to sign a written statement, he hesitated and requested a delay in the interrogation. "[10] Pukhova said, "he was struck by disappointment, brought to tears. The defections of Maclean and Burgess cast suspicion over Philby, resulting in his resignation from MI6 in July 1951. He also began working for both the Soviet and British intelligence, which usually consisted of posting letters in a crude code to a fictitious girlfriend, Mlle Dupont in Paris, for the Russians. He was given a hero's funeral, and posthumously awarded numerous medal [83] by the Soviets: Order of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner, Order of Friendship of Peoples, Order of the Great Patriotic War, Lenin Medal, Jubilee Medal "Forty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945". After Philby defected to the Soviet Union in 1963, Eleanor visited him in Moscow. [44], In January 1950, on evidence provided by the Venona intercepts, Soviet atomic spy Klaus Fuchs was arrested. ", "John le Carré, The Art of Fiction No. [10][page needed], His Soviet controller at the time, Theodore Maly, reported in April 1937 to the NKVD that he had personally briefed Philby on the need "to discover the system of guarding Franco and his entourage". "[49] On 25 May, Burgess drove Maclean from his home at Tatsfield, Surrey to Southampton, where both boarded the steamship Falaise to France and then proceeded to Moscow. In late summer 1943, the SIS provided the GRU an official report on the activities of German agents in Bulgaria and Romania, soon to be invaded by the Soviet Union. [18] Maly was one of the Soviet Union's most powerful and influential illegal controllers and recruiters. From 1952, Philby struggled to find work as a journalist, eventually – in August 1954 – accepting a position with a diplomatic newsletter called the Fleet Street Letter. A colossus who humbled the mighty: From Thalidomide to the exposure of Kim Philby, his campaigns against injustice changed the world. It later emerged that the agent – known as Schmidt – had also worked as an informant for the Rote Kapelle organisation, which sent information to both London and Moscow. During the early years of the Cold War, Philby handed intelligence to the USSR. Philby found that the award proved helpful in obtaining access to fascist circles: "Before then," he later wrote, "there had been a lot of criticism of British journalists from Franco officers who seemed to think that the British in general must be a lot of Communists because so many were fighting with the International Brigades. Philby married four times: to a Viennese revolutionary, an Englishwoman who worked in Marks & Spencer, an American sculptress and finally a Soviet copy editor. Philby's award of the Order of the British Empire was cancelled and annulled in 1965. By the end of the Second World War he had become a high-ranking member. Robert Wallace, H. Keith Melton, Henry R. Schlesinger. [62] She recalled returning home to Beirut from a sight-seeing trip in Jordan to find Philby "hopelessly drunk and incoherent with grief on the terrace of the flat," mourning the death of a little pet fox which had fallen from the balcony. Please, Philby with his fellow exile and lover Melinda Maclean in Russia. The man described himself as Otto. After I had been wounded and decorated by Franco himself, I became known as 'the English-decorated-by-Franco' and all sorts of doors opened to me. While working in Section Five, Philby had become acquainted with James Jesus Angleton, a young American counter-intelligence officer working in liaison with SIS in London. The fault lay with the people in charge. [64], Philby told Elliott that he was "half expecting" to see him. He briefly reported from Cherbourg and Brest, sailing for Plymouth less than twenty-four hours before the French surrendered to Germany in June 1940. [21][22], Alexander Orlov (born Lev Feldbin; code-name Swede), Philby's controller in Madrid, who had once met him in Perpignan, France, with the bulge of an automatic rifle clearly showing through his raincoat, also defected. Burgess had to get to London to warn Maclean, who was under surveillance. Working from genuine unclassified and public CIA or US Department of State documents, Philby inserted “sinister” paragraphs regarding US plans. Philby had been briefed on the situation shortly before reaching Washington in 1949; it was clear to Philby that the agent was Donald Maclean, who worked in the British Embassy at the time and whose wife, Melinda, lived in New York. On September 3 1939, Soviet spy Kim Philby met his future wife. [71][page needed], When FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover was informed that one of MI6's top men was a spy for the Russians, he said, "Tell 'em Jesus Christ only had twelve, and one of them was a double [agent]. By Jeremy Salt. Journalist Ben Macintyre, author of several works on espionage, wrote in his 2014 book on Philby that MI6 might have left open the opportunity for Philby to flee to Moscow to avoid an embarrassing public trial. Philby had to help discover the identity of "Homer", but also wished to protect Maclean. Philby was also responsible for liaising with the CIA and promoting "more aggressive Anglo-American intelligence operations". This statement was underlined twice in red and marked with two question marks, clearly indicating their confusion and questioning of this, by disbelieving staff at Moscow Central in the Lubyanka, according to Genrikh Borovik, who saw the telegrams much later in the KGB archives. [38], A month later Igor Gouzenko, a cipher clerk in Ottawa, took political asylum in Canada and gave the Royal Canadian Mounted Police names of agents operating within the British Empire that were known to him. Harold ‘Kim’ Philby was a member of the ‘Cambridge Five’ spy ring. They remained friends for many years following their separation and divorced only in 1946, just following the end of World War II. Nonetheless, the information was publicized in 1967 when Philby granted an interview to Murray Sayle of The Times in Moscow. Philby replied that none had been sent and that none were undergoing training at that time. However, Volkov's defection had been discussed with the British Embassy in Ankara on telephones which turned out to have been tapped by Soviet intelligence. You can give that to the International Organisation for Aid for Revolutionaries. Their fifth child, Harry George, was born in 1950. [58] Golitsyn proceeded to confirm White's suspicions about Philby's role. To protect his family, still living in the USSR, he said nothing about Philby, an agreement Stalin respected. This turned out to be identical with Barclay's dispatch, convincing the NKVD that Philby had seen the full Barclay report. '"[80] Philby drank heavily and suffered from loneliness and depression; according to Rufina, he had attempted suicide by slashing his wrists sometime in the 1960s. During his career as an intelligence officer, he passed large amounts of intelligence to the Soviet Union, including a plot to subvert the communist rule of Albania. [10] It is possible that it was a Viennese-born friend of Friedmann's in London, Edith Tudor Hart – herself, at this time, a Soviet agent – who first approached Philby about the possibility of working for Soviet intelligence. As spies queue up to write memoirs, the life of a Cold War master- spy remains intriguing. The first was ignored as a provocation, but the second, when this was confirmed by the Russo-German journalist and spy in Tokyo, Richard Sorge, contributed to Stalin's decision to begin transporting troops from the Far East in time for the counteroffensive around Moscow. Angleton, later chief of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) Counterintelligence Staff, became suspicious of Philby when he failed to pass on information relating to a British agent executed by the Gestapo in Germany. [34][35] Charles Arnold-Baker, an officer of German birth (born Wolfgang von Blumenthal) working for Richard Gatty in Belgium and later transferred to the Norwegian/Swedish border, voiced many suspicions of Philby and Philby's intentions but was ignored time and time again. Philby himself thought this might have been the case, according to Macintyre. He was also responsible for tipping off two other spies under suspicion of espionage, Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess, both of whom subsequently fled to Moscow in May 1951. I questioned her about it but she would give me no details. [32], During 1942–43, Philby's responsibilities were then expanded to include North Africa and Italy, and he was made the deputy head of Section Five under Major Felix Cowgill, an army officer seconded to SIS. Genrikh Borovik, The Philby Files, 1994, published by Little, Brown & Company Limited, Canada, Kim Philby, memorandum in Security Service Archives (1963), David Smiley, "Albanian Assignment", foreword by Patrick Leigh Fermor – Chatto & Windus – London – 1984 (, Rufina Philby, Mikhail Lyubimov and Hayden Peake (1999). [3] St John was a member of the Indian Civil Service (ICS) and later a civil servant in Mesopotamia and advisor to King Ibn Sa'ud of Saudi Arabia. Philby suffered only a minor head wound. They travelled together in Spain through August 1939. [57], It is unclear whether Philby had been alerted, but Eleanor noted that as 1962 wore on, expressions of tension in his life "became worse and were reflected in bouts of deep depression and drinking". 894646. Turkish intelligence took them to a border crossing into Georgia but soon afterwards shots were heard. [3], On the evening of 23 January 1963, Philby vanished from Beirut, failing to meet his wife for a dinner party at the home of Glencairn Balfour Paul, First Secretary at the British Embassy. Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence who worked as a spy for and later defected to the Soviet Union. But efforts among the expatriate community in Paris produced just two recruits. Please, The subscription details associated with this account need to be updated. [citation needed], Elena Modrzhinskaya at GUGB headquarters in Moscow assessed all material from the Cambridge Five. The first three missions, overland from Greece, were trouble-free. I think that he was of Czech origin; about 5 ft 7in, stout, with blue eyes and light curly hair. Aileen Philby had suffered since childhood from psychological problems which caused her to inflict injuries upon herself. However, a more serious threat to Philby's position had come to light. [13] Philby later recalled: Lizzy came home one evening and told me that she had arranged for me to meet a "man of decisive importance". [45] His dissolution had a troubling effect on Philby; the morning after a particularly disastrous and drunken party, a guest returning to collect his car heard voices upstairs and found "Kim and Guy in the bedroom drinking champagne. Kim Philby was born on 1 January 1912 in the Punjab region of India. Philby died of heart failure in Moscow in 1988. [24][25] Philby and Burgess ran a training course for would-be saboteurs at Brickendonbury Manor in Hertfordshire. [60], In 1961, Anatoliy Golitsyn, a major in the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, defected to the United States from his diplomatic post in Helsinki. Officially, his post was that of First Secretary to the British Embassy; in reality, he served as chief British intelligence representative in Washington. Larger numbers were landed by sea and air under Operation Valuable, which continued until 1951, increasingly under the influence of the newly formed CIA. She asked, "Could the SIS really be such fools they failed to notice suitcase-loads of papers leaving the office? The new London rezident, Ivan Chichayev (code-name Vadim), re-established contact and asked for a list of names of British agents being trained to enter the USSR. [citation needed], The intervention of Philby in the affair and the subsequent capture of Volkov by the Soviets might have seriously compromised Philby's position. On 7 November 1955, Philby was officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan, who told the House of Commons, "I have no reason to conclude that Mr. Philby has at any time betrayed the interests of his country, or to identify him with the so-called 'Third Man', if indeed there was one. In 1968 Philby published his memoirs, My Silent War. He was thirty-four; she was thirty-five and seven months pregnant with their fourth child, Miranda. TimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers. Kim Philby found the only absolutes in his Moscow life to be the solace of vodka whilst back in Blighty a succession of celebrated authors churned out spy novels by the dozen based on the espionage of this turncoat MI6 agent whose betrayal outsmarted some of the finest analytical minds the western intelligence services of the cold war could muster. was a high-ranking member of British intelligence who worked as a double agent before defecting to the Soviet Union. JOHN Philby, the eldest son of Soviet spy Kim Philby, who was a double agent and the notorious Third Man … [73] Philby was under virtual house arrest, guarded, with all visitors screened by the KGB. In September 1949, the Philbys arrived in the United States. The word most consistently used to describe Kim Philby was “charm”, that heady, beguiling and occasionally lethal English quality. [16], In London, Philby began a career as a journalist. • Philby, Burgess and Maclean, a Granada TV drama written by Ian Curteis in 1977, covers the period of the late 1940s, when British intelligence investigated Maclean until 1955 when the British government cleared Philby because it did not have enough evidence to convict him. "[17], Philby continued to live in the United Kingdom with his wife for several years. [78] Though Philby claimed publicly in January 1988 that he did not regret his decisions and that he missed nothing about England except some friends, Colman's mustard, and Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce,[79] his wife Rufina Ivanovna Pukhova later described Philby as "disappointed in many ways" by what he found in Moscow. The intercepted messages revealed that the British Embassy source (identified as "Homer") travelled to New York City to meet his Soviet contact twice a week. [81], Philby found work in the early 1970s in the KGB's Active Measures Department churning out fabricated documents. Aileen died in 1957, when Tommy was just 11 years old; his contact with his father was cut off as soon as the double spy defected to the USSR in January 1963. In 1940 he was interviewed by MI5 officers in London, led by Jane Archer. Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA's Spytechs, from Communism to Al-Qaeda. Philby was thus able to evade blame and detection. He took a job at a monthly magazine, the World Review of Reviews, for which he wrote a large number of articles and letters (sometimes under a variety of pseudonyms) and occasionally served as "acting editor. Philby wrote that his first wife, Litzi Friedmann, an Austrian communist, had arranged the initial rendezvous with Deutsch. The World Federation for the Relief of the Victims of German Fascism was an organization that attempted to aid the people victimized by fascism in Germany and provide education on oppositions to fascism. [43] A leading figure within the CIA was Philby's wary former colleague, James Jesus Angleton, with whom he once again found himself working closely. But the resident (Russian term for spymaster) in France, probably Pierre at this time, suggested to Moscow that he suspected Philby's motives. [10][page needed], Both the British and the Soviets were interested in analyzing the combat performance of the new Messerschmitt Bf 109s and Panzer I and IIs deployed with Fascist forces in Spain. [39], In February 1947, Philby was appointed head of British intelligence for Turkey, and posted to Istanbul with his second wife, Aileen, and their family. [58] Another meeting was scheduled to take place in the last week of January. As he states in his autobiography, he "became something of a fanatic" and in 1908 "the first Socialist to join the Indian Civil Service". It has since been suggested that the whole confrontation with Elliott had been a charade to convince the KGB that Philby had to be brought back to Moscow, where he could serve as a British penetration agent of Moscow Centre. They knew the risks they were running. [58] Following the departure of his father and stepbrothers for Saudi Arabia, Philby continued to live alone in Ajaltoun, but took a flat in Beirut after beginning an affair with Eleanor, the Seattle-born wife of New York Times correspondent Sam Pope Brewer. For the Soviets, Philby was an invaluable asset, ensuring the correct use of idiomatic and diplomatic English phrases in their disinformation efforts.[82]. , resulting in his London club burned in an incident with a charcoal stove and returned London! 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